Thursday, August 27, 2020

Dynamic Natural Monopoly Regulation

Question: Examine about the Dynamic Natural Monopoly Regulation. Answer: Presentation: The subject financial aspects manages the fundamental thought of interest and gracefully. The whole subject with convoluted science, speculations, dynamic procedures manages the manner by which harmony can be reestablished in the economy by coordinating these two segments, the interest and the flexibly. The business sectors can be sorted into a few sections. They are: Monopoly, Oligopoly, Oligopolistic, Monopolistic, Perfect rivalry and Monopsony. In this article the four most significant structures has been depicted trailed by a subtleties comprehension of the normal syndication advertise. Immaculate Competition is the idealistic yet perfect circumstance of market that any customer wants(Makowski, 2014). In monopolistic market a couple of merchant sells comparable kind of item and faces little obstruction of exit and entry(Nikaido, 2015). Oligopoly showcase has scarcely any merchants who can independently impact the example of exchange (Weyl Fabinger, 2013). The fourth sort is the market of imposing business model, an idealistic idea. Imposing business model market structure This market is described by a solitary merchant. The single dealer takes into account an enormous number of purchasers. It is an idealistic circumstance. As there is nonappearance of different dealers, thus the monopolist has the ability to settle on the cost of the administration and products that he takes into account the individuals. From the fundamental idea, it very well may be said that there is obstruction to enter the market (Scitovsky, 2013). Costs Benefits of the firm at normal cost evaluating: The regular imposing business model market is currently depicted in subtleties to see how the advantages of maker and expenses of shoppers are determined to shape the balance. Regular syndication is where there is just a single vender or maker of the products (Lim Yurukoglu, 2015). The section of different makers is suspended because of the grandiose expense related with the foundation of the set up where the merchandise will be created. As it were characteristic syndication exists for products which require colossal fixed expense. Characteristic imposing business model is unique in relation to unadulterated syndication as in the in the previous one circulating or permitting other organization to create a similar cooperative attitude lead to a tremendous expense. In the later, different firms can't work as they are suspended from entering the market by the current firm and its guidelines (Stiglitz Rosengard, 2015). Some significant trademark that makes the market to be a characterist ic restraining infrastructure are: Presence of Economies of Scale: The economies of scale infer the circumstance where there is a fall in the minimal expense of creation with an expansion in the quantity of all out amount of yield delivered. The fixed expense is high: In any creation procedure there is two kinds of cost, the fixed and the variable expenses. The fixed expense is the weight that the organization needs to manage regardless of whether it doesn't carry on its creation (Simon, 2015). The variable expenses are moderately low: In characteristic restraining infrastructure this piece of the expense is extremely low and the quantity of individuals exploiting the merchandise and ventures has insignificant capacity to change this variable expense. Expanding the quantity of maker builds the creation cost just as the wastages of the assets associated with creation. E.g.: The administration gave by the vehicle segment by means of railroad is financially savvy as there is imposing business model. In the event that some other specialist co-op attempts to enter the market it needs to hold up under an enormous expense through setting up the mind boggling system of foundation. Simultaneously accepting that the quantity of individuals taking the administration is steady, the shopper gets appropriated among two specialist co-op and it diminishes their incomes. One exemplary case of common imposing business model market is the railroad administration which goes about as one of the principle technique for correspondence and transportation in numerous nations of the world. Through the above figure, LRAC is the since quite a while ago run normal cost bend of the characteristic imposing business model firm. Under imposing business model the interest of the firm and normal income are same and can be delineated by the equivalent descending slanting line. The administration of any country consistently attempts to provide the cost estimate of the firm managing common restraining infrastructure at the converging purpose of normal absolute expense and request bend (Hawley, 2015). The purpose for such a stage can be featured based on the accompanying focuses: First, the impact on value, amount created and dead-weight reduction when the monopolist is permitted to choose uninhibitedly on the administration that they give. Also, the perfect circumstance of cost and amount that the shopper requests contrast and the issues related with the circumstance has been featured. Through the figure over, the circumstance that may happen if regular monopolists are permitted to work uninhibitedly has been depicted. Monopolist consistently attempts to augment their benefits. The circumstance which causes them to boost their benefit is appeared by the crossing point of two bends to be specific the since a long time ago run peripheral cost bend and the bend demonstrating negligible income (Stigler Mencken, 2016). In the event that they are permitted to provide their cost estimate with no prevention by the administration, at that point the monopolist will charge a significant expense as appeared by Pm in the figure. At this significant expense, not many individuals will have the option to manage the cost of the administration and thus however there will be requirement for the administration yet the interest for the products and enterprises will be less. The absolute amount of merchandise created will be less as appeared by Qm in the figure. This prompts loss of gov ernment assistance in the general public as tremendous measure of dead-weight reduction. The dead-weight reduction is appeared by the triangle ABC in the figure. On other hand the firm is likewise profited in a few different ways under this market structure. In the event that they were working with ideal force close by they are preferably to create less amount. Be that as it may, under common syndication as the firm and the more significant position authority confines the passage of different firms thus the organizations are profited. In specific cases the organizations are even furnished with endowment by the administration as they are compelled to offer their assistance at a lower cost. The individuals on other hand are profited as government mediation encourages the cost to be lower than they in a perfect world ought to be. In regular imposing business model if each choice is left on the monopolists hand there will be advertise disappointment. Consequently, there is have to set up some value guideline in the market. In the event of normal imposing business model generally the administration controls the cost by setting a limitation on the upper level that the monopolist may charge for the merchandise and administration he creates. Requirements for government guideline The circumstance when government attempts to advance the circumstance regarding the societys point of view has additionally been appeared in the above figure. Buyers consistently attempt to get merchandise and ventures at the base conceivable expense. In this circumstance, the purchasers need the cost to be as low as Ps. That is the customer needs the cost of products and enterprises at where the since quite a while ago run minor expense converges the interest bend. At this low value a large portion of the customer will have the moderateness to pay for the administrations and henceforth the most extreme interest will be produced in the economy. This may appear to be a perfect circumstance however the difficult that lies in this circumstance is that the monopolist with their benefit causing thought process will to never need to deliver at such a low cost as it will decrease their benefit to unimportant point. At this circumstance the expense of creation (LRAC) is more prominent than t he income earned by selling the products and enterprises. The issue of allocative proficiency happens from this point. Allocative effectiveness infers the circumstance where there is a harmony between the buyers request and economys creation. Under this circumstance the value that is normal income ought to be equivalent to peripheral expense. Be that as it may, in this situation the normal monopolist denies to work and hereafter, the administration needs to intercede and keep the cost at a middle of the road position. Henceforth, the perfect circumstance of the restraining infrastructure market ought to be something in the middle of the monopolists decision and the customers decision. This must be guaranteed with the assistance of government mediation. The circumstance is depicted by the figure beneath: As of now observed that monopolists cost is exceptionally high for example Pm, though perfect cost as requested by society is low at Ps. The administration is mindful to its kin for offering legitimate types of assistance and consequently it intercedes in this market. It powers the monopolist to keep their cost at where the all out cost bend meets the interest bend of the shopper. This point is better than the two extraordinary circumstances talked about before. Now the monopolist is prepared to proceed with their creation as their expense is at any rate equivalent to the income. On other hand because of the relatively low value required to pay for the administration, numerous customer can manage the cost of it and get profited. The loss of government assistance has likewise been diminished by and large. For this situation the dead-weight reduction of the general public is the part appeared by triangle EFG. There are not many things that falls under the regular restraining infrastructure. In scarcely any nations the railroad organize structures common syndication while in some other nation the business cooking for vitality sources shapes the restraining infrastructure. As of late the business managing fiber optics has begun working in certain business sectors and they appreciate the status of characteristic syndication (Minamihashi, 2012). The explanation for considering railroad arrange as regular imposing business model is the significant expense related with it. In nation like India and Australia the railroad arrange is worked by the legislature of the particular nations (Nash, 2015). In India, the Ministry of Railways cares for the whole railroad system and they are heavily influenced by the Central government. In Australia, the government deals with the whole railroad arrange framework through their organization named as Australian Rail Track Corporation. The explanation for this s ituation of mono-worked complex framework is that there is colossal dir

Saturday, August 22, 2020

If the gold standard was in use today, would it hinder economic growth Essay

The highest quality level alludes to a fiscal framework where the unit of record of cash will be fixed with the heaviness of gold. There are numerous individuals who contend that the best quality level ought to be executed to cut down the swelling. By fixing the flexibly of cash with gold, the legislature won't have the option to give cash without having gold for possible later use. In any case, then again, there are specialists who contend that by fixing the gracefully of cash with gold, financial development will be impeded as the measure of gold accessible on Earth is restricted (Mises, 2009). This paper will show that the best quality level will impede monetary development. I’ll initially contend that there is a restricted measure of gold in this world. Furthermore, monetary development is viewed as restricted. In conclusion, the measure of business will in the end arrive at a level equivalent to the gold property by the national bank of the nation. Monetary development will be ruined if the highest quality level is applied as there is a limited measure of gold on the planet. Financial development requires that there ought to be adequate liquidity in the framework. By holding fast to the highest quality level, monetary development will be obstructed as to gracefully more cash, the legislature will initially need to purchase gold. (Skousen, 1997) Secondly, monetary development apparently is boundless. This doesn’t supplement with the highest quality level, as the measure of gold is constrained on the planet. On the off chance that financial development is to be boundless, at that point there must be sufficient cash gracefully to back it. The best quality level makes to hard for governments to give cash, which in certainty limits monetary development. (Cagan, 1982) Finally, if the estimation of the dollar is restricted by the measure of gold, at that point measure of trade would arrive at a level equivalent to the gold possessions. All together for more cash to be given, the legislature would need to buy increasingly gold to back the expansion in dollars gave. All the three focuses composed above are affected by the single factor that the gracefully is restricted, while the interest for gold is by all accounts boundless. (Cagan, 1982) Another issue with the best quality level is the means by which to figure out what weight of gold will equivalent to one unit of record. Moreover, the best quality level can be self-destructive for creating economies. Creating economies should purchase gold to back their financial development, which may as of now be to costly to purchase for them. At present, these economies can back it through a spending deficiency. In addition, in what manner will the best quality level have the option to deal with the speed and multifaceted nature of today’s budgetary exchanges? In conclusion, in the event that the world movements to a best quality level, at that point all the administrations should consume immense measure of fiat cash to make sure that the cash gracefully equivalents to the measure of gold in the economy. Eichengreen and Marc) taking everything into account, I accept that in spite of the fact that by holding fast to the best quality level the degree of expansion will descend. Nonetheless, the financial development of a nation will be frustrate. The significant purpose behind this is the constrained graceful ly of gold. Besides, if the best quality level is executed the costs of gold will shoot up, making it progressively hard for creating economies to grow up. In conclusion, the legislature should consume immense measures of fiat cash to ensure that the there is no additional cash in the economy.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Choosing the Best Writing Services

Choosing the Best Writing ServicesWe all know how important it is to hire the best writing services to work for you when you are looking for a writer to create a marketing document. There are many options available to those who are looking for a document, and it is very important that you make sure that you choose the one that will be able to meet your needs.Many of us work at a level where we have to pay our bills and then there are some basic needs that need to be met before you can even think about going shopping. You must remember that the more you spend on the service provider, the better quality of the product you will receive.Most of the writers who are working for you will understand what is expected from them, but the thing to keep in mind is that you must be specific with your needs when you are looking for the best writing services. You do not want to go with a service provider who offers all kinds of document services. The first thing you should look for is the kind of wo rk that you want to receive.You may have different writing projects that you want to get done over the course of a year or even several years. You want to have someone that has experience in working with these projects and can suggest the one that will be right for you. Remember that the longer you will be working with the professional, the better quality of work you will be getting.It is always good to know that you are hiring a professional who is going to understand what you want to achieve with the project. They will be able to recommend the best way to get the project finished and will give you advice on how to improve the document. Remember that the more time you have with the writer, the better your end result will be.If you are planning to hire a professional document writer, you should find out exactly what they can do for you. The most important thing to keep in mind is that you need to make sure that you are hiring the best document writer for your needs. You will be able to ask for samples of the work that they have already completed to make sure that the content is ready for you to use.If you are looking for multiple documents or if you are looking for someone to draft a document for you, you need to be certain that you have chosen the right person for the job. Remember that the cheapest services will not be the best, so take the time to compare the different writing services available. You need to understand that there are going to be differences between the prices for the different writing services.Take the time to make sure that you are comparing the same things. This way you will be able to make sure that you are only paying for the same quality and the same services for your needs. You do not want to end up spending a lot of money on a professional who can deliver mediocre results.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Teen Pregnancy More Education is Needed

Teenage pregnancy is a rising factor throughout the world that’s caused by many unfortunate actions. Teenagers feel the need to engage in sexual activities due to peer pressure, violence and statutory rape. In some cases teens end up birthing their babies and in other cases they abort them. To help teens understand the consequences and reality of teen pregnancy, abstinence education and sex education can be introduced to steer teens in a better direction and help them to decide the appropriate outcome for their babies. Multiple teens are conceiving a day resulting in just as many births a day. This problem exists due to sexually active teens. Each year, some 2,600,000 teenagers become sexually active-a rate of 7,000 per†¦show more content†¦The state is usually responsible for paying for the prenatal care of the teenage mother which is a reason why many states are losing money. Money loss is not the only factor that is affecting our society. The emotional well- being of pregnant teens also takes a toll on our society. â€Å"Depression in adolescent mothers is linked to an increased risk of rapid subsequent pregnancy, and these findings should come as no surprise† says Diana Mahoney, a news reporter for Clinical Psychiatry News. Teens feel stressed and irresponsible which causes most teens to go into a depressive state. Another contributing factor to the depression in teens is the choice of having their child or having an abortion. To most teens, choosing abortion over birth is an easy way out of turning into a soon to be parent. At least 100 teenagers a month are having an abortion for the second time ( Teens Are Using Abortions as Contraception 1). Little do they know, that they are immensely effecting their health by using abortion as a kind of contraception. According to journalist Beverly Kemp of News of the World, she writes: What is especially disturbing about this development is the fact that these pregnant teens are repeatedly getting pregnant and repeatedly receiving abortions as a form of birth control. Just having one abortion can lower a teen’s chances of being able to conceive when she isShow MoreRelatedEssay on Teenage Pregnancy and Prevention1320 Words   |  6 Pagescare and support teenage births. Although teen pregnancy has declined in the past, the United States is still number one out of all industrialized countries of teen pregnancies. Therefore, implementing an in depth sex education class covering parenting in schools will allow teens to fully understand he consequences of having protected or unprotected sex. All children deserve love and care from their parents. The United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than other countries because one is notRead MoreThe Importance of Comprehensive Sex Education to Decrease Teen Pregnancies894 Words   |  4 Pagesgirls are facing lots of problems. New problems are rising such as an increased pregnancy rate among teenagers. Our teenage girls are less developed and unprepared for the problems which come along with their decision to have sex. It is also too early for teenage girls to become pregnant. Many teens think having a baby is some sort of joke. They believe it will never happen to them but the reality is that every time teens have sex, there is a possibility that the sperm will find its way to the eggRead MoreTeen Pregnancy : Education Is A Virtue851 Words   |  4 PagesTeen Pregnancy: Education Is A Virtue Dating back many centuries, teen pregnancy was the cultural norm where women as young as twelve are married off to men to conceive their children. Back then, it was acceptable for young women to bare a child once first menarche and have as many children as her body could bare. In today’s society, teen pregnancy is looked down upon, yet sexual appealing imagery is solicited throughout social media, television networks, magazines, and music. So how is it thatRead MoreTeen Pregnancy Essay1667 Words   |  7 PagesTeenage pregnancy has long been acknowledged as an important health, social and economic problem in the United States, one that creates hardships for women and families and threatens the health and well-being of women and their infants. Unintended pregnancies span across age, race and religion, with a specific negative impact among the teenage population. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2016) In 2015, a total of 229,715 babies were born to women age d 15–19 years, for a birth rateRead MoreTaking a Look at Teenage Pregnancy961 Words   |  4 PagesTeenage pregnancy falls under a vulnerable population because it differs from the majority of the population that is generally worked with in the medical-surgery unit. Pregnant teens are cared for in the obstetrics unit but even in that unit they are still considered the vulnerable population because there are many health issues that occur more often in mothers of young age. People who get pregnant at a young age are at risk for health conditions such as placenta previa, pregnancy-induced hypertensionRead MoreLiterature Review On Teen Pregnancy1254 Words   |  6 PagesTeenage Pregnancy Introduction Teenage pregnancy in the U.S is a major issue given the number of teens between age 15 and 19 years giving birth. The average teen pregnancy rate in America is about 57 per 1000 teens in 2010 (Knox 1). This has decreased to about 47 per 1000 teens, but at the state level, some states such as Texas have higher averages. Currently, the state of Texas recorded a rate of 73 teenage pregnancies per 1000 females aged between 15 and 19 years (Sayegh et al. 95). The main causeRead MoreHigh Teen Pregnancy Rate: Comprehensive Sex Education at Fault?1377 Words   |  6 Pageswho become pregnant each year in the United States. According to The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 34% percent of young women become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of 20. Eight in ten of these teen pregnancies are unintended and 79% are to unmarried teens. There are many preliminary causes for such a high In Kizzy’s case, the blame is put on the lack of sexual education within her school. She claims that because she did not received adequate information on this subjectRead MoreSolving Teenage Pregnancy Is Help Find Shelters907 Words   |  4 PagesOne solution to help solve teenage pregnancy is help find shelters which provide education for those who are in low-income environments or are in the foster care system which would reduce the rate of teens under the age of 19 from becoming pregnant. These shelters could provide help in finding work to help cover the cost of medical needs and other expenses. The shelters could find doctors who are willing to work with teenagers with lower-incomes or provide lower cost for treatment for teenagers inRead MoreIs Sexual Education A Good Or Bad Idea?929 Words   |  4 PagesA teen girl walks from her bathroom with a gloomy look in her eyes. Her pregnancy test is positive. In today’s society sexual education is being taught less and teens are learning more about sexual intercourse from television instead of learni ng it from their parents and their schools. To prevent teen pregnancy parents should promote sexual education, contraception, and rely less on television teaching sex education. We cannot stop children from gaining their hormones but we can teach them how toRead MoreThe Age Of The Pill1530 Words   |  7 Pagesthe 20th Century, teen pregnancy was the norm. The prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy has become an important goal of our society. Although adolescent pregnancy and birth rates have been steadily decreasing, many adolescents still become pregnant. The purpose of this research paper is to review the history, current status, programs and the future of teen pregnancy. History In the early 20th Century, teen pregnancy was the norm. Women were lucky to get an education past the eighth grade

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Evolution Of The American Family Essay - 1249 Words

The Evolution of the American Family Lisa Parris-Godley Introduction n the upcoming page’s I will answer the following questions. Why is family the most important agent of socialization? What caused the dramatic changes to the American family? What are the changes? I will discuss the differences in marriage and family, I will discuss how they are linked to class, race, gender, and personal choices. The purpose of this study is to explore the many different family functions and the paths that people are now choosing. I will give my opinion on whether these changes have had a positive or negative affect. I will finally discuss the trend of the modern family, back to pre-World War II family structure, how would that effect the strides that have been made in the progression of women rights. American families have never been as diverse as they are today. There is a constant changing definition of what we call â€Å"family†. We as Americans are straying further and further from the idea of a classic nuclear family. One of the biggest reasons is a dramatic rise in kids living with a single parent. In 2014, just 14% of children younger than 18 lived with a stay-at-home mother and a working father who were in their first marriage (Livingston, 2015). This research will address in depth why households are now more diverse than ever, what’s the normal family now, and why aren’t the laws adjusting to how the average American family lives today. Researchers who studyShow MoreRelated The Evolution of the American Television Family Essay1151 Words   |  5 PagesThe Evolution of the American Television Family Television is not just a form of entertainment, but it is an excellent form of study of society’s view concerning its families. This study focuses on the history of television beginning in the early 1950s and will run through present day. It examines the use of racial, ethnic and sexual stereotypes to characterize the players of these shows. The examples assist in tracing what has happened to the depiction of the American family on prime timeRead MoreEvolution of the Typical American Family Essay1388 Words   |  6 PagesThe American family has come a long way and has changed a lot overtime. Liberals and conservatives have their own views on the American family today. It is very tough to raise a family nowadays. However, there are some easier ways to raise a family today as well. Some of the things that I will talk about are divorce and its effects, welfare, abusiveness on children and wives, and a couple of articles in the book, Families in the U.S. One tough thing about todays American family is divorceRead MoreMass Media Influence On American Culture878 Words   |  4 PagesMajor developments in the evolution of Mass Media The new era of technology led to major developments in the evolution of mass media, worldwide. In our society, we originally communicated orally before the Internet and wireless devices existed. Individuals relied on traditional forms of mass media, such as the television, radio, newspapers, and magazines, to attain knowledge of the outside world. Thereafter, the development of new forms mass media evolved, and we were introduced to the InternetRead MoreScience And Religion : A Very Short Introduction1198 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Darwin and Evolution† and â€Å"Creationism and Intelligent Design,† Science and Religion: A Very Short Introduction (pp. 58-103) by Thomas Dixon The author, Thomas Dixon explains Evolution and creationism in separate chapters in his book, â€Å"Science and Religion: A Very Short Introduction.† The evolution chapter talks about the history of Charles Darwin’s evolution, its challenges of the root of all living creatures as started in the Bible and it effect it has brought in American society. In the chapterRead MoreSignificant Health Care Event1225 Words   |  5 PagesSignificant Health Care Event Eugene Whitehead HCS/531 February 18, 2013 Ann Gantzer Science and technology have always been joined at the hip. The evolution of health care services in the United States (U. S.) undoubtedly has been shaped at least in part by advancements in scientific research and knowledge, and technological innovation (Shi amp; Singh, 2012). The following exploration focuses on ways a specific scientific or technological event or innovation affected health care provisionRead MoreScience Teachers and Professors Should Not Teach Creationism 1231 Words   |  5 Pagesso people can understand what the debate is about,† it is up to the school to teach evolution, while families or other educators should inform their children and students about creationism or any other type of creation myth or legend. As a matter of fact, a transparent explanation for this tenet efficiently emerges: the â€Å"sides† of the debate are more than two; therefore, there is no reason to consider evolution and creationism, but not the Chinese principle of â€Å"Yin and Yang† or the Greek philosophers’Read MoreEvolution Of Science Classes At School1653 Words   |  7 PagesBeing raised in a Christian family, I have attended Catholic school my whole life. That being said, I have grown up studying Bible stories since before I can remember. Probably the most prominent and well-known of these stories in Christian theology is, of course, the story of creation. To this day, I still remember how the story goes. On the first day, God created the earth and daylight. For six days after, he continued creation and included the sky, the ocean, plants, animals, and humans. GrowingRead MoreReflection On The American Culture1384 Words   |  6 PagesReflection on Class Sources American culture refers to the traditions and practices of the people of the United States. Culture comprises of the nature of buildings, religion, music language and marriage. The population of the United States is more than 320 million people making it the most culturally diverse country in the globe. Books such as Crabgrass Frontier, Manifest Destination and Muscular Christianity are important sources of information about American culture. This paper is a reflectionRead MoreThe Theory Of Evolution Or Intelligent Design1677 Words   |  7 Pagesseem to be shrouded in mystery, but in modern America two main theories have come to dominate as the explanation; either the theory of evolution or Intelligent Design. The theory of evolution was first published by Charles Darwin, a famous figure who is just as controversial in modern society as he was in his own time. He introduced the public to the theory of evolution in his book On the Origin of Species, where he proposed that new speci es evolve from older ones through Natural Selection, or the processRead More Beliefs Taken to the Extremes Essay1623 Words   |  7 Pagesbeen seen. In the United States many groups preach extreme beliefs that are harmful to the American people. One such group is the Religious Right.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For the purpose of this research paper the Religious Right is to be considered the people and groups that follow the extreme right of Religious views in America. Groups such as Christian Coalition, Christian Family Network, and the American Family Association fall under this category.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When looking at information the Religious

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A World Lit Only By Fire - 1083 Words

In the book A World Lit Only by Fire, the author, William Manchester, describes the period of time between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance known as the medieval period, or Middle Ages. The church had the most power in Europe and people struggled with surviving events such as epidemics. Consequently people had very short lives that may have not served them well. Every person in Europe during this time would eventually hear, â€Å"Bring out your dead!† as the gravediggers’ carts rolled down the street each night after an outbreak of the Bubonic Plague. Life during the medieval period was brutal and harsh with everything from church domination and the constant warring over political power to diseases and†¦show more content†¦Epidemics would break out in Europe and the origin of the disease would never be identified. To top that off, the Bubonic plague â€Å"returned to Europe at least once a generation since October 1347 † (Manchester 34). The medieval period was a time of alarming disease for people to be living in. Like the Holocaust in the 1930s-1940s, Jews during this time were treated with brutality. Manchester describes it as, â€Å"Jewry was luckier - slightly luckier - than blacks. If the pogroms of the time are less infamous than the Holocaust, it is only because anti-Semites then lacked twentieth-century technology† (35). In the year 1492, the Spanish had regained control of Spain. The rule of Spain was now under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They were not fond of Jews in their nation. The Jews in Spain were given three months to convert to christianity or to leave. After seeing what the Spanish were doing in Spain, the king of Portugal ordered the expulsion of all Portuguese Jews. Any Jews who wouldn’t leave or were slow to leave were massacred. Around four thousand Lisbon Jews were killed during a single night in 1506. Only three years later persecutio n of Jews in Germany began. Jews throughout history have been treated badly but during the medieval period it was especially hard if you were a Jew. On page 37, Manchester states, â€Å"At any given moment the most dangerous enemy in Europe was the reigning pope.† The popes of the church were their Holy Fathers, but

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Counseling Johns Case Study

Question: Discuss about the Counseling for Johns Case Study. Answer: Introduction Counseling services are essential to help people overcome challenges and lead a happy life. People face stressful situations in their daily activities or within their families and social interactions. Negative experiences deprive individuals of their happiness and can cause distress that has far-reaching impacts. Counselors come in to help affected people psychologically and give hope and positive energy needed to enhance attainment of life goals. A case study discussing counseling activities with John can provide an in-depth understanding of the usefulness of this practice to the society. John is a teacher aged 44 and has been working for over 15 years. Despite his long-term teaching experience, John feels unappreciated at the workplace. He also faces hardships in his family. Of late, there are increased conflicts between John and his spouse. Moreover, his son aged 17 is undergoing psychiatric assessments after the Institute of Health diagnosed him with a personality disorder recent ly. John requires counseling help to cope with the unfavorable turn of events and make appropriate decision to drive his career forward. In this report, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool was chosen for use in stage assessment; before, during and after. In addition, Taylor-Johnston Temperament analysis was also used. This report outlines the counseling journey with John focusing on suitable counseling theories, ethical and professional considerations, and responsibilities. Eventually, the paper provides recommendations to help John advance in his career. Counseling theories 1: John Hollands theory The Hollands theory is useful to help John overcome problems, particularly in the work place. The theory emphasizes that people prefer to work in an environment involving like-minded colleagues to attain job satisfaction (Nauta, 2013). Additionally, the method supports an environment that enables people to apply their skills and capabilities as well as expressing themselves even when taking on workplace tasks. The theory outlines six attributes about career people: realistic, investigative, enterprising, social, artistic, social and conventional individuals. People feel comfortable and motivated to work with people sharing similar attributes. Working with people who follow in other categories does not provide fulfillment at work and would make one to search for other favorable work environments (Sharif, 2015). These elements are observable in the case of John. As a teacher, John feels unappreciated at work that affects his performances. By applying the Hollands theory, it is possible to determine the category where John falls and give advice on promising ways to enhance his career. To accomplish all this, it is important to develop objectives before, during, and after evaluations of a patient. Before the assessment, the objective is to gather right information about the Hollands theory and establish relationships with the patient. Following this, John would know necessary information relating the assessment. During this stage, the counselor seeks the informed consent of the patient before beginning the tests. The counselor also addresses the patients concerns related to the scheduled evaluations (Sharif, 2015). Examples of these issues include the handling of results, risks, instruments for use, and other relevant information. After laying down the structure, the counselor proceeds to carry out the evaluations. In the case of John, the counselor would aim to identify the category of work environment suitable for the patient. He or she leads John in exploring all the six attributes by way of asking questions, interviews, or using other assessment tools. After the assessment, the counselor analyses the data for Johns character at work that influence his feelings of little or no appreciation. After the evaluations, the instructor produces the results to specified persons (Nauta, 2013). The results inform the patient about the issues that affect careers. The findings also guide the counselor in determining the kind of advice to offer to enable the John overcome the challenges in work and promote his career. The counselor follow-up to help the patient apply skills gained as well as overcome difficulties in implementation. Counseling Theories 2: John Krumboltz's Theory Another theory suitable for counseling John is the Krumboltzs approach that recommends for indecisiveness among career people. Krumboltz believes that it is desirable to be indecisive in career to enable unplanned events that can lead to great outcomes (Krumboltz, 2015). In addition, indecision can help people adjust to the rapid changes in the labor market because they lack control over such forces. The theory gives insights for people to explore new opportunities or ideas that can enrich their careers. Counselors who apply this theory aim at helping their clients approach possible events or conditions positively. However, this is an overall goal of the method, and counselors can adopt smaller objectives before, during, and after assessment to realize high effectiveness. Before carrying out assessments, the counselor aims to set structure and introduce the theory to clients. Counselors serve patients with guidelines and relevant information that enable them to give informed consent to allow the assessments. During the evaluations, the counselor aims to arouse the indecision attributes using examination instruments. The assessments point out common but unexpected social variables, environmental forces, and situational moments that influence ones life (Krumboltz, Foley, Cotter, 2013). Focus shifts to the presentation and interpretation of findings after the counselor completes assessments. Consequently, the counselor develops appropriate guidance and activities for the client to observe to advance their occupations. The advice given incorporates elements of flexibility to cope with wide range of or situations. By utilizing this theory, the counselor helps address all social factors affecting Johns career and facilitate practical advice that promotes growth. Ethical and Professional Practices Ethics and professionalism are vital to the success of counseling programs. Counselors need to observe principles that guide counseling practice to win the patients trust and encourage cooperation (Bond, 2015). By applying professional and ethical guidelines, therapists overcome personal interferences that can potentially undermine the quality of services offered and outcomes. Johns counseling needs demand considerations for all ethical issues that can arise before, during, and after completing the programs. These considerations include maintaining the confidentiality of Johns disclosures (Fisher, 2013). Counseling ethics and professional code requires therapists to keep information shared by patients to themselves to avoid reaching undesired third-parties. It is ethical to protect the patient from perceived or unforeseen consequences when personal information leaks to the public. Conflicts between John and his spouse, dissatisfaction at work, and his sons personality disorder can ha ve negative implications for him and the family members. The public could look down upon them as a failed family, which has emotional consequences that affect their social interactions or image. Another important aspect is full disclosure of the counseling programs and relevant information. A patient requires comprehensive knowledge about all the activities and contents of therapies to help in making informed decisions (Bond, 2015). Patients lack high awareness of the risks exposed by sharing personal information, assessments on their bodies, and implications of adopted strategies. A therapist needs to give all necessary details and seek the consent of the patients. Providing comprehensive information also enables the patients to open up and share more facts that help the counselor give accurate advice. Additionally, the patients learn about their liabilities relating to counseling practices that can assist in determining legal actions to take against counselors in case outcomes are undesirable. Counselors are also expected to exercise due care and avoid negligence that poses high risks for the clients. Therapists are prone to mistakes in offering their services and are liable for associated consequences on the patients. The counseling profession and code of ethics discourage negligent behaviors of practitioners (Levitt, Moorhead, 2013). Counselors have an obligation to ensure all activities carried out attain minimum standards. By doing this, the counselors take precautions to minimize chances of unexpected repercussions on their patients (Welfel, 2012). Although counseling rules can help prosecute the therapists, negligence on individuals can have devastating consequences not possible to correct by punishing the practitioners. For instance, in a case of negligent behaviors that lead to a permanent breakup between John and his wife, punishing the counselor may not help reconcile the two spouses. Ethical and professional considerations assist the counselors to perform their responsibilities throughout the journey with their clients. Responsibilities Counseling involves various tasks and responsibilities for therapists as well as their customers. Therapists are in charge of all activities before, during, and after counseling programs. Counselors have a duty to carry out assessments of the patients before determining the appropriate programs for the clients (Hbert, Caughy, Shuval, 2012). A fundamental guideline in examining the patients conditions entails safeguarding their welfare. Evaluations carried out should not expose the clients other closely related individuals to dangers. Counselors are required to demonstrate competence when using and interpreting assessment instruments. There are minimum levels of competence set before carrying evaluations (Richards, Dykeman, Bender, 2016). Counselors who do not meet these performances should seek assistance or refer the patients to other more experienced professionals. The counselors should also ensure the assessment instruments selected are appropriate. Using unsuitable tools reduce the reliability of results due to low accuracy. Inaccuracies have an influence on the eventual outcomes of the patients may not overcome their conditions. Counselors have an obligation to seek the consent of the clients before attending to them. They should give full explanations to their customers who make decisions on whether to accept or reject the assessment (Low, Kok, Lee, 2013). The counselors are required to give details about the recipients of evaluation results and obtain consent of the client. Upon assessment, the counselors provide results to the qualified personnel. Authorized people ensure the results do not reach undesired individuals who may compromise the treatment process or expose patients to increased risks. Counselors also play roles of diagnosing possible mental disorders (Zheng et al., 2016). Clients experience psychological problems that can be linked to mental problems. Determining any underlying mental problem can help in developing effective interventions. It is the responsibility of therapist to perform proper diagnosis, demonstrate cultural sensitivity, and explore the history and social prejudices to ident ify any mental problems. Other responsibilities include selecting therapy treatment instruments. Evaluations lead to the determination of a clients problems to enable the development of the treatment program. Therapists have the duty to ensure they select suitable devices. They would apply referral information to avoid choosing inappropriate methods (Whiston, 2012). Further, counselors have a role to play regarding the selection of the conditions of assessing or administering treatments. Conditions during the administration of therapies influence the outcomes significantly. Therapists need to adopt conditions that suit the state of the patients and consistent with the evaluation results. The environment where intervention takes place should be supportive to the patients to heighten outcomes. It is necessary to incorporate technological capabilities to facilitate administration (Balkin, Juhnke, 2013). Appropriate technologies help produce accurate results. Therefore, counselors should ensure technologies ado pted function correctly to produce desired outcomes. After evaluation and administration of care, the counselors have a task to follow up and ensure clients apply skills gained effectively, as well as, recommending for improvements. Recommendations Johns case provides opportunities for applying counseling principles to help solve his problems and enable progress in his teaching occupation. John requires concepts of several counseling theories to promote outcomes (Low, Kok, Lee, 2013). This report has focused on two methods that address Johns issues: conflicts with his wife, job dissatisfaction, and stress of his son who was diagnosed with personality disorder. These problems hinder John from advancing his careers. The Hollands theory is useful to help John grow in his career by recognizing like-minded people in the workplace environment, who are easier to work with. Counselors helping John should consider adopting other theories to support the Hollands principles, and thereby heighten outcomes (Capuzzi, Gross, 2013). Additionally, the Krumboltzs approach of indecisiveness can help john deal with unexpected issues in his life that threated his career prosperity. This method is desirable but requires reinforcement of other idea s to realize increased outcomes. The theory may not address all issues related to conflicts with his wife and stress of the suffering son that affects Johns commitment in his career. Borrowing other ideas provide diverse information to enables John adjust to the changes and enhance chances of succeeding in occupation. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate several approaches to allow attainment of the most appropriate solutions. Conclusion This report described counseling practice for helping people to overcome problems and lead happy lives. Emphasis has been given to counseling theories and responsibilities of counselors before, during, and after intervention programs. The contents of the report are tailored to meet the needs of John. He is a teacher dissatisfied with his work, conflicts with his spouse, and has a son suffering from personality disorder. Counseling can help overcome these problems by applying theories such as John Hollands and John Krumboltzs approaches. Counselors should carry out all responsibilities utilizing ethical and professional codes. Although the two methods discussed in this paper are helpful, reinforcement ideas of other theories can heighten outcomes. 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